It uses green spaces to buid complex narratives within the city, where form, contents and meaning are closely intertwined. The stories show the im- portance and singularity of these green notes in the concert of the city landscape. A methodological tool which, taking historical events and processes and the socio- economic activities of the city of Seville as its storylines, analyses and diagnoses the urban space from the perspective of public monuments, furniture and equipment, ending with a proposal of recommendations.
The economic activities and, speciically, the commercial fabric found in historic city centres are one of the most powerful forces for the transformation of the landscape. The different commercial processes have been catalogued and described, highlighting their relationship with the heritage values of the historic centre of Seville. The construction of a landscape over time. The iconogra- phy and the very coniguration of cities have links that go beyond the natural bonds between an object and its representation.
The history and the urban image of a city possess, in themselves, essential elements for the construction of the landscape. This text relects on the way in which this is expressed in the case of Seville. The coastal nature of — Production of new architecture in the city of Seville and its relationship with the Seville is not something landscape. Deining a theoretical and conceptual basis to delimit the bounds of the territory of the possible and the desirable with respect to contemporary actions which is evident in the in historic city centres and, on the basis of this, the study provides an indicator to eyes of its residents.
This diagnose the level of risk that would be run by performing a contemporary intervention is due to its distance in a historic city centre. The features that deine the physical environment are of prime importance in any landscape characterisation, but in the case of Seville, their relevance is particularly great.
In order fully to understand the structure of the city, it is necessary to ind answers to questions about how and where the irst human settlements were established in a land that was, at irst, hostile but which had extraordinary potential thanks to the navigability of its river. But the coastal nature of Seville is not something which is evident in the eyes of its residents.
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This is due to its distance from the coast and the gradual movement of port activities to the south of the city. Depending on the scale and context of the analysis, a particular orientation has been given to the explanation of the historical processes and socio-economic activities that have conigured the landscape of the city and have left elements that today form part of the cultural heritage and which are characteristic of the city. Until then, other settlements had shared the leadership in a territory with many population nuclei. From the Almohad era and until the last quarter of the 20th century, the historical pro- cesses that have produced the greatest changes in the landscape of the city, fundamen- tally through the growth of important sectors or neighbourhoods, have been detailed.
These changes have been related to the late middle ages, with the irst expansion out- side the walled city, and to modern times, with important urban transformations which 28 Guide to the Historic Urban Landscape of Seville occurred as a consequence of relations with the New World. Finally, special attention has been paid to 2 international events which, in a short period of time, profoundly changed the historic urban landscape of Seville: the Ibero-American Exposition of and the Universal Exposition of It was to be in the inal decades of the 20th century that Seville deinitively embraced its surrounding territory, unveiling a metropolitan vocation that has not ceased to consolidate ever since.
Several socio-economic activities have been selected since, being transversal in time, they contextualise a signiicant part of the cultural heritage of the city, this time more closely associated with buildings or the intangible heritage than with areas of expan- sion, as in the previous case. These activities do not, therefore, relect all of the activ- ities that have been undertaken and have left their mark on the landscape of Seville, but those which are more relevant from the cultural heritage point of view and which have left, and are still, important reference points on the landscape.
Notable among them are trade, port activities, festivities and ceremonies, military activities, religion and residential activity. The characterisation also includes a inal section on the perceptions of the historic urban landscape, broken down into several points, since this aspect allows multiple approaches. Likewise, in an examination of discourse and evaluations, an analysis has been made of heritage protection policies, the press and a series of surveys on signiicant landscape resources.
The section closes with an examination of the visual perception of the historic urban landscape from some signiicant spots, highlighting aspects that may be improved in order to enjoy a landscape experience of higher quality. And the physical environment con- tinues to have a very relevant presence in its landscape, although it has been changed in varying degrees due to human intervention over time. The most characteristic geological forms of its immediate surroundings are the escarpments of the Alcores and the Aljarafe which, despite being rather moderate elevations, are recognised respectively as the eastern and western boundaries of the alluvial plain in which the city is situated.
Although some physical components of the landscape have maintained their original, natural features, some have almost completely disappeared. The course of the river Guadalquivir has undoubtedly been altered more than any other, 30 Guide to the Historic Urban Landscape of Seville as a result of human intervention, at various points of its lower course. This river course has also been used as a back urban, despite its privileged location. It is scarcely noticed and not well-known by the local population as a place of interest or opportunity, and it is crossed by various access routes to the city, of varying importance.
Diversion of the Tagarete river Brackenbury Plan. New channel between the Tagarete - Tamarguillo. Punta del Verde cut-off. Cartuja cut-off. Chapina levelling. This has caused a change to network of waterways, the landscape that is very noticeable along some stretches, requiring the adoption of with the subsequent loss measures that, in the medium term, could slow down and eventually possibly reverse of vegetation and fauna this process.
These spaces have grown over time, while the along some stretches. However, throughout the city the atmosphere, as well as the water and the soil, suffer from unacceptable levels of pollution, including noise and light pollution. It is not possible to compare it to other cities which, because of their larger size or 35 Introduction and abstract of the characterization nearby activities that are harmful to the environment, have greater levels of pollution.
However, it can be said that the potential for improving this land is remarkable in a city whose location in a basin is not conducive to the evacuation of noxious particles. The condition of the water lowing through the network of waterways is also far from ideal, with recordings of a low renewal rate and a high risk of nitrate contamination.
None of the riverbeds of the network of waterways are in ideal condition. Over time, secondary buildings, rubbish tips, quarries and scrap heaps have been built nearby, all of which contribute to a worsening of its condition. The worsening environment in the area of the study has a direct impact on biodiversity, which affects not only the reduction and diversity of plant species but also of animals, especially ish, who are less likely to survive in water with low levels of oxygen, and birds, which are essential for the completion of basic biological cycles.
Some indige- nous species, of both plants and animals, run the risk of disappearing as a result of the expansion of highly invasive foreign species, such as the aforementioned giant cane on some of the riverbeds or exotic tortoises in the northern zone of the historic wharf. Much of this infrastructure has grown alongside the activities of urban growth and construction that only slowed down with the serious inancial crisis that hit the Spanish economy in The effect of this activity on the area and its landscape in the s led to the creation of an Ofice for Metropolitan Studies, which issued a series of directives regarding the coordination of urban planning, with shared objectives for the area.
Despite this, many of these directives were not implemented. The mobility model based on the use of private vehicles explains the large expansion of transport infrastructure, since the problem of vehicle saturation has continued to grow. It is worth noting that, in this area, both the SE and the northern part of the SE have crossings that are regulated by trafic lights, impeding the low of trafic while cutting off old access routes to the city from rural areas.
At the same time, stretches of the SE are paralysed by roadworks, also to the detriment of the landscape.
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In any case, the transport infrastructure has only managed to shift the problem outwards, without managing to solve it, as a result of which more and more areas and landscapes have been affected. On the other hand, line 1 of the 38 Guide to the Historic Urban Landscape of Seville metro has offered a sustainable solution to the problem of mobility, without damaging the landscape. Another signiicant outstanding problem is the bottleneck at Puerta Triana, which will be made considerably worse with the development of a car park for over vehicles in the Pelli Tower.
The proposal to build a four-lane bridge to reduce pressure on the entrance and exit to La Cartuja in the same area will dramatically increase the trafic on Calle Torneo and will also, once again, encourage the use of private vehicles. In addition, a network of cycle lanes has been extended and enthusiastically accepted by local residents, making it one of the most successful initiatives in projecting an image of a city that is truly committed to the environment and to quality of life. In the same way, it had and continues to have an extremely important role in the development of the socio-economic activities that characterise Seville, whether they relate to the port, to commerce, to sport or to leisure.
The parts of the historic riverbed whose banks have been reclaimed for recreational use by the city and the promotion of diverse activities in the river could be expanded to include other activities such as bathing or ishing. Several associations involved in heritage protection, university academics, experts in the ields of urban planning and heritage and other individuals all commented in various opinion pieces in the local press. The relevant administrative body for culture did not oppose the building of the tower since it was to be built outside of the boundary sorrounding the protected historic urban area which have no physical protective boundary so as not to 41 Introduction and abstract of the characterization detract from their visual impact.
Nor do they enjoy any sort of legal protection against this sort of proposal. Nonetheless, and without being able to make predictions about whether the Pelli Tower will be regarded in future as an iconic feature of the city of Seville, as those who have shown their support for it have asserted, its imposing presence is evident in some views of the city as a whole, whether viewed from nearby or from further away.
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The authorities have traditionally paid particular attention to this type of immoveable heritage, whether from point of view of conservation such as recent major work to the churches of El Sal- vador and San Luis, which also received private funding or of legal protection. The features of these buildings are typical of the area. The main criticisms of this project were based on the increasing cost of the works in comparison with their original budget; its design, which was not in keeping with its surroundings - either aesthetically or in terms of scale - and the treatment of the archaeological remains that were excavated in the square.
The northern part of the city centre is undergoing a process of regeneration that began in the s and is not yet inished. Its squares and other public spaces are being transformed and improved. This is because the area next to the river has undergone some building work along the riverbank itself, such as the police station and various restaurants, while the urban expansion of the historic suburb has been based around the building of tower blocks.
The use of public spaces during this festival - which is not limited to Holy Week itself - is controversial as a result of the knock-on effects on trafic and on day-to-day life in the areas affected by the religious processions, as well as the damage that occurs at a higher rate during this week, and the visibility of certain Holy Week is one spaces over others that are not part of the oficial route.
In fact, it controversy over the installation of overhead lines for the tram system. This was also has become one of the related to a conservatism which at times seeps into the urban furniture and the lack of criteria governing where it should be located. The use of public different way to the rest of the year. This is true of cultural, sporting and leisure activities.
Closely linked to leisure activities are activities that take place in the business sector. Other commercial and artisan activities have in the past given their names to local streets and squares. Such businesses are set up in an informal manner in spaces that are more or less adequate for their purposes, on an annual or weekly basis or around the time of a speciic festival. Compared with the aforementioned high level of representation of religious buildings among the other buildings that are protected by cultural administrative bodies, indus- trial heritage only represents 4.
The buildings in Seville that are linked to industrialisation are varied in character and accurately relect impor- tant changes to production methods between the 18th century and the second third of the 20th century. One of the main problems with industrial heritage buildings is that they tend not to be in use. However, industrial heritage receives a large amount of local press coverage, It would be interesting thanks to the existence of various local associations who campaign for their protection. It would areas that go beyond be desirable to establish agreements with the Ministry, with the aim of providing alter- the scale of the native uses for these buildings.
A similar solution yielded positive results for the Military 47 Introduction and abstract of the characterization buildings themselves to Hospital in guaranteeing its continued use. The setting up of a time. Some peripheral register of contemporary architecture in Andalusia has documented buildings in suburbs beyond the city Seville, including those built in the style known as modernist architecture.
More recent examples are some of the pavil- measures that could be ions from Expo One of the inal appendices of GHULS refers to the integration of contemporary ar- chitecture into the historic city, with a proposal to evaluate the suitability of planned projects within the context of the fragility of a historic city, but without dismissing the wealth of cultural values that they might provide.
It also demonstrates that the deinition of protective surroundings around the buildings themselves has not been suficiently advanced, being extended to delimited spaces with criteria based on avoiding blemishes to the landscape.
In the same way, it would be interesting to study the additional measures for heritage protection in urban areas that go beyond the scale of the buildings themselves to document the different ways in which the city has been used over time. The neighbourhoods of Triana and San Bernardo have been through a process of re- 48 Guide to the Historic Urban Landscape of Seville generation which has reclaimed many spaces and buildings. In the case of San Ber- nardo, this process has also caused the disappearance of traditional socio-economic activities, which were a source of vitality for the neighbourhood.
This is also happen- ing in Triana. It is also relevant to note the loss of the most deining features of these historic neighbourhoods, in the cases of the districts San Roque and San Benito, with the replacement of their traditional houses by blocks of lats housing large numbers of families, and the resulting increased density of population and consequent trafic and parking problems. El Arenal, however, has preserved some architectural features that bear witness to the successive changes that it has experienced since the development of the irst settlements outside of the city.
The successful integration of new features has been achieved by concentrating on the quantity and texture of materials that are not especially incongruous and, despite its popularity with tourists it has managed to ab- sorb the increased number of visitors with more success than the suburb of Santa Cruz.
Disasters and tragedies, the remembrance of past relationships with the American continent, the arts including literature, music, song and dance , religious life and bullighting are the main things that are commemorated through different public monuments. One outstanding issue in the management of the urban heritage is raising awareness of cultural assets that are still not well-known.
On the other hand, there are two parts of 50 Guide to the Historic Urban Landscape of Seville the city that have a lot of potential for use and future enjoyment: the cultural heritage linked to the international expositions of and and the port area. A large part of the cultural heritage associated with the Ibero-American Exposition of is incorporated into the main tourist routes of the city, and considered by residents to be part of their cultural identity.
It would be interesting to set up a tour around Avenida de la Palmera and the main pavilions, gardens and houses that were built on the whim of this event and that are very attractive. The Universal Exposition of is not as well managed, nor are the buildings relating to it. The Isla de la Cartuja Cartuja Island 51 Introduction and abstract of the characterization has not been well managed from the point of view of attracting tourists, despite the fact that it includes a historic site of great interest, with the Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas and where, in addition, the Andalusian Centre for Contemporary Art is located.
Other pavilions of the exposition have been documented as assets of cultural interest the pavilions of navigation, Spain, Finland, Andalusia, Hungary and France but they are also situated away from the main tourist routes. In general, the site is still underused, even by the local population, and needs to ind some additional activities to complement to its current offerings, in order to improve its links with the city.
The endurance of port activities in Seville has bequeathed the city a hugely important heritage, both movable and immovable. This ranges from storage buildings built for the Ibero-American Exposition, which are protected but not currently in use, to now-obsolete cranes that were built throughout the 20th century, historic docks and the old shipyards that are now in a rapidly deteriorating state of disrepair. In recent years, several restaurants and an aquarium have opened on the site of the port, as well as a big wheel that was recently removed.
Creativity and genius in the 53 Introduction and abstract of the characterization design of the plan for its future use will be essential, as well as the implementation of measures that will strengthen its role as a means of communication and contemplation of the landscape within the city, as well as at the mouth of the Guadalquivir and beyond. It is also possible to reconcile the restoration activities on the banks of the river, such as by raising awareness of their development beyond the information offered by the mural of tiles located on the Muelle de Nueva York or in the information centre of the port itself.
In order to achieve this, it would be possible to make use of technological applications such as augmented reality to show the lost parts of the river. There are two core strategic approaches: maintaining and improving cultural assets within the landscape, and safeguarding land- scapes which are of cultural interest. However, the EPA also lays out additional objectives, with those relating to cultural management in- cluding the qualiication of urban space, infrastructure or production activities acquiring, along with others, particular signiicance within the context of this work.
Furthermore, the European Landscape Convention states that landscape quality objectives must relect what the population wants for their environment. It is therefore necessary to know what this is in order to make it a reality. A set of both general and more speciic objectives are proposed in this guide. Four general objectives have been identiied, each of which are supported by other more speciic objectives.source url
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These in turn expand upon measures to be taken, and in some cases provide project proposals. In all, a total of thirteen speciic objectives and forty-six measures are presented. Develop biodiversity Riverbed and riverside regeneration Naturalisation of artiicial riverbanks Urban ornithology. The city and its birds Trees in the city OBJ 1. Expand cycle and pedestrian networks Involve the living waterway in the workings of the city Improve the links between the city and the historic dock Rework the areas located along the right-hand shore of the historic dock, from the Altadis Factory to the Club Mercantil OBJ 2.
Renovate roads used by vehicular trafic Regulate road trafic in the Puerta de Triana area. Encourage agricultural activity Initiatives to stimulate the creation of new areas for farming Development of environmentally-friendly arable and livestock farming OBJ 3. Improve commercial activity in the historic city centre Development of business initiatives linked to sustainable land use Regulation and integration of informal trade into the historic urban landscape Creation of a new look for business OBJ 3. Promote greater integration between the port and the city The port. A centre for city-related initiatives Landscape-compatible activities in open areas 57 Proposal of objectives and measures The port and nature.
Mitigation of impact on the landscape OBJ 3. Encourage creative, sporting and leisure activities Riverside cuisine. Adaptation and improvement of facilities Promotion of creative activities. In order to achieve this, the proposed actions include riverside regeneration, fortiication of green spaces, reduction of the impacts of noise and light, a focus on biodiversity, and in particular on birds and trees, as these are strong indicators of a landscape which is rich in nature. Rivers which low naturally without any alterations, others which have become blocked and have a low water renewal rate, streams which have been channelled or redirected, sediment deposits on meandering rivers, lost tributaries, etc.
Restoring the waterways to their nat- ural state, in both urban and peri-urban areas, will contribute signiicantly to improving both the landscape and the environment. But the inner city is also home to a precious natural environment; an ecosystem consisting of lora and fauna inherited from its surroundings which have adapted to live on in 61 Proposal of objectives and measures peculiar urban conditions and complete an important landscape, illing it with constantly changing life.
This growing urban ecosystem is going from strength to strength, and it is worth making an effort to understand and manage it. In the past, these riverine areas have usually been ignored and mistreated. The ecological and landscape quality of riverine woodland is declining and original vegetation is steadily being re- placed by species that are foreign to their new Mediterranean landscape. This has re- sulted in a series of negative consequences, with a loss of authenticity and ecological coherence and the relentless progression of erosion processes. Recover the riverbeds of clogged streams, 2.
Improve the composition and structure of riverbanks and biodiversity, 3. Measure, monitor and reduce organic and inorganic contamination and water turbidity, 5.
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Raise public awareness of the geographical reality for waterways and 6. Promote public use of these spaces. Environmental education In terms of the riverbed 7 aspects included : Study of the vegetation restricting the proper working of the waterway Restoration of the riverbed, correct dredging and cleaning. Sediment control Major banks of rivers and streams. Improve the fauna directly linked to waterways Physico-chemical and microbiological quality analysis of surface water Analysis of nearby gravel pits and quarries for potential impact on the ecosystem In terms of the riverbanks: Erosion analysis of the banks and protection if required Analysis of riparian vegetation and a subsequent regeneration project Study of the composition of associated wildlife and a project to improve population sizes.
Over time, the network of waterways which exists in the area being studied has been modiied to pre- vent looding and gain land, with the landscape being altered to create artiicial layouts and processes. Owing to intense activity supported by the lower Guadalquivir basin in Seville, the Corta de Cartuja is an example of one of these artiicial sections. And al- though reversing them would be dificult, it is possible to restore them so that they can be integrated into the landscape and help to improve biodiversity. Objectives: 1. Integrate channelled sections into the landscape against both an urban and a natural backdrop, 2.
Boost public use of rivers, 3. Increase biodiversity with new 63 Proposal of objectives and measures biotopes and improved water quality, 4. Increase the quality of the landscape and 5. Treat the riverbed Propose various options such as bioengineering Mimic the material which forms the river basin Improve transversal connectivity and longitudinal continuity: Activities focusing on existing embankments Modiication and creation of escarpments Elimination of earth embankments Activities to encourage public use: Provision of furniture benches, tables, etc.
It is a resounding world of sparrows, blackbirds, turtledoves, kestrels, swifts, starlings, martins, etc. Species that traditionally live in urban areas, such as sparrows, martins and swal- lows, are decreasing in numbers, whilst populations of exotic breeds such as parrots and common waxbills are growing.
Achieving a balance of desirable and non-desirable wildlife is dificult, but necessary if we want to avoid an urban landscape that is devoid of life and sound. Increase avifauna and urban fauna populations desirable , 2. Obtain a map of the fauna contained in the area covered by the guide, 3. Diversify the urban landscape by managing vegetation and 4. Publicise the risk that the city poses to wild- life by raising awareness in its inhabitants. Development: Compilation of studies: Censuses of birds, bats, etc.
Vegetation Environmental awareness programme: Creation of ornithological maps and routes for the city Participatory activities: setting up nesting boxes, for example Social awareness: minimising the effect of animals in parks. Plans for controlling exotic species: Reproductive control: sterilisation of individuals Capture and removal of exotic species to reception centres Environmental education discouraging people from abandoning exotic animals.
Poor practices lead to deformities, shorten their lifespan, and threaten to weaken them. Civil engineering works pose yet another threat. Trees are an essential part of Seville for both climatic and environmental reasons, as well as being part of its identity. Diversify and improve the urban and peri-urban landscape, 2.
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Encourage social ownership of that landscape, 3. Reduce the gases which affect the ozone layer, 65 Proposal of objectives and measures 4. Promote understanding and sharing of natural heritage, 6. Connect the city to the land and 7. Improve the quality of urban life. OBJ 1. This last brings an aspect of porosity, lending a softer side to the urban system. The lood plain and arable land are full of potential as spaces in which to take time out from the city.
Improving and developing the ways in which they are used diversiies the landscape, considerably reduces certain pressures, and provides the city with new spa- ces for leisure and recreation, creating areas in which to get away from it all and enjoy the lora, fauna, and landscape. Based on our respect for nature and the condition of the waterway ecosystems, this proposal supports the improvement and restoration of their environmental conditions.
The presence of surrounding land, be it public or pri- vate, that may not be built upon, makes it possible for us to organise and manage these spaces so that residents can enjoy them. Improve the quality of riparian ecosystems and the related riverine are- as, 2. Underpin the longitudinal and transversal continuity of the riverine ecosystems, 3. Increase the quality of the landscape, 4. Recover underused peri-urban spaces for public use, 5. Link and connect the shores, physical spaces and populations around the riverbanks, 6. Turn the river into a link, not a boundary, 7. Understand and circulate information on ethnological heritage, 8.
Steer agriculture towards sustainability, 9. Re- cover rivers and streams as elements of our social identity, Reduce the pressure on urban green spaces by offering alternatives. Development: General assessment of the spaces in which to act Proposal of spaces intended for river parks. The city and its plain are inextricably intertwined. Agricultural areas offer the city with great opportuni- ties to improve the landscape and the environment, provide areas in which to get away from the pressures of the urban environment and irmly maintain their boundaries.
We propose that agricultural parks may be created as a way of defending, protecting, promoting and adding value to these agroecosystems. Improve the environment and the quality of agricultural landscapes, 69 Proposal of objectives and measures 2. Connect the city to the surrounding land, 3.
Reduce the pressure on urban green spaces by offering new places for leisure and recreation, 4. Create a quality trademark with Vega del Guadalquivir Guadalquivir Plain products and a market network for local products and 5. Communicate knowledge about the land, agriculture, landscape, and the environment. Development: Evaluation of farmland which has the potential to become part of the parks Creation of a dialogue and agreement framework between administrators, owners and the general public Thoroughfares and construction elements: Proposal of spaces intended for agricultural parks.
To protect natural, environmental and landscape resources in the three areas mentioned above and in metropolitan Seville, creating new green spaces which are itted out and intended for leisure, recreational, sporting and cultural purposes, and for understanding the natural and landscape heritage of the area and 2. Development: Background information. This site is an excellent area of applicability because of its urban shape, molded in years by the Gonzaga family. Together with the UNESCO Mantova e Sabbioneta office, we have involved citizens in the requalification design to activate regaining process and test the applicability of our analyses in the city of Mantova, a very articulated and complex reality, starting from the fruition of its places and according to its morphological, environmental, cultural and perceptive aspects.
He conducts research in the themes of architectural and environmental design for the enhancement of the built environment, with a specific focus on the sustainable regeneration of urban and environmental systems. He works together with Institutions and Public Administrations on technological innovation and research into building and urban requalification processes. Tweets by The Journal of Public Space. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer.
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Register Login. Home Archives Vol 2 No 1 Space The regaining of public spaces to enhance the historic urban landscape. Roberto Bolici. Matteo Gambaro. Cristiana Giordano. Published: Issue: Vol 2 No 1 Pages: 45 to Section: Space. Bolici, R. Author Biographies Roberto Bolici. Management Plan. Clemente, M. Urbanistica e cooperazione. Giannini Editore. Comune di Bologna Regolamento sulla collaborazione tra cittadini e amministrazione per la cura e la rigenerazione dei beni comuni urbani.
February 22, Council of Europe European Landscape Convention. Faro Convention. Daverio, P. Wikify editor is a simple editor for wiki-style mark-up. The rendering of the mark-up is based on Wiky. Rendering of mathematical equations is done with MathJax. Please send us a message for support or for reporting bugs. Comments must follow the standards of professional discourse and should focus on the scientific content of the article. Insulting or offensive language, personal attacks and off-topic remarks will not be permitted. Comments must be written in English. Preprints reserves the right to remove comments without notice.
Readers who post comments are obliged to declare any competing interests, financial or otherwise. We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement. Share this article with. Create alert Email:. Load new image. Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed. Cite as: Azpeitia Santander, A. In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna UNESCO, and the Paris Recommendation UNESCO, as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century.
Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models.